Flex Interview Questions

Flex Generic Interview Questions - Answers are available in the comments section for some real questions

To know more about Adobe Flex, what is adobe flex? How to create Adobe Flex Applications? - you can read the material available on the following links - these are from the official Adobe site.


Also Check:
Java Web Developer, Java Software Development

Some very common questions
What is Flex? Adobe Flex?
What kind of applications you can create from Flex?
What is the output of Flex applications?
What development environment you need to create Flex applications?

Can you manipulate images using Flex programs?
Does Flex support creating workflow based applications?
What kind of data grids you can create through Flex applications?
How do you connect to a database via a Flex program?

What kind of source code integration tools are available with Flex?
What third party development tools are available to program in Flex?
Can you develop web based applications in Flex?
Is Flex OS specific or operating system independent?

Can we run Flex applications in MAC?
Do we need any plugins to run Flex applications?

Flex Technical Interview Questions:
Source from : http://grou.ps/flex/talks/13594

Is it possible to make httpService Requests synchronous?
I need to load an image from flickr into my application. Do I need a crossdomain.xml file on flickr?
What is the difference between httpService and Data Service?
How do you generate random numbers within a given limit with actionscript?

Have you built any components with actionscript? If so explain how you did it?
How do you implement push on a flex applications?
I am going to add images into a tag. How will it resize itself?

What is a resource Manager?
What are the similarities between java and flex
What is the dynamic keyword used for?
How do you implement push with flex data services?

What are the methods called when a UI component is intialized?
How do you implement drag and drop on components that do not support ondrag and ondrop?
Can you write to the file system from flex?
What is a drag manager?

How do you call javascript from Flex?
How do you use a repeater?
What are three ways to skin a component in flex?
How do you use css styles in flex?

What is the difference between sealed class and dynamic classes?
What is MVC and how do you relate it to flex apps?
What is state? what is the difference between states and ViewStack?
How does item renderer work? How do I add item renderer at runtime?

What keyword allows you to refer to private variables of a class?
How polymorphism works on actionscript?
How do you overload functions in action script?
What is dynamic keyword used for?

What are sealed classes ?
What are runtime shared libraries?
What is caringhorm ? how do you use it? Have you worked with Cairnghorn?
What keyword allows you to implement abstraction better?

What design patterns have you used? in Actionscript and java?
What's the difference between Java and AS3 getters and setters?
Explain how binding works in mxml components.
What's the difference between ChangeWatcher.watch, and BindingUtils.bindProperty?
Why would you want to keep a reference to a ChangeWatcher and call unwatch()?

How do you add event listeners in mxml components. Now AS3 components?
What does calling preventDefault() on an event do? How is this enforced?
Explain the lifecycle of a Cairngorm action.
What is the problem with calling setStyle()
Explain the difference between creating an effect and setting the target as opposed to adding an effectListener

How do you identify a component created in a repeater?

Other info:
Infosys Campus job chances
Software Development Freshers Jobs

Freelancing jobs

Wipro Jobs
Software Development Jobs

PHP mySQL Interview Questions

PHP mySQL Interview Questions - LAMP Interview Questions

PHP Interview Questions

1. What are the differences between Get and post methods in form submitting, give the case where we can use get and we can use post methods?

2. Who is the father of php and explain the changes in php versions?

3. How can we submit from without a submit button?

4. How many ways we can retrieve the date in result set of mysql using php?

5. What is the difference between mysql_fetch_object and mysql_fetch_array?

6. What is the difference between $message and $$message?

7. How can we extract string 'abc.com ' from a string 'http://info@abc.com' using regular _expression of php?

8. How can we create a database using php and mysql?

9. What are the differences between require and include, include_once?

10. Can we use include ("abc.php") two times in a php page "makeit.php"?

mySQL Interview Questions

What is database testing and what we test in database testing?

How can we know the number of days between two given dates using MySQL?

What is the difference between CHAR and VARCHAR data types?

How many ways we can we find the current date using MySQL?

How many values can the SET function of MySQL take?

What is the maximum length of a table name, a database name, or a field name in MySQL?

How to determine the number of rows in the full result set and also restrict the number of rows that a query returns,without running a second query ?

What is the Use of "WITH ROLLUP" in Mysql?

Is MySQL better than MSSQL ? - Compare MySQL with Microsoft SQL Server - MSSQL

What is the use of i-am-a-dummy flag in MySql?

How many types of buffers does use MySQL?

Where MyISAM table is stored ?

How can we find the number of rows in a table using MySQL?

How can we encrypt and decrypt a data present in a MySQL table using MySQL?

Interview Tips, Questions and Preparation

How to prepare for an Interview - Interview Tips, Questions and Preparation

Guys, I am starting this post to share my thoughts and all your ideas and thoughts, including some important tips and real experiences about attending interviews in companies for software development and project management positions.

Kindly share the typical questions asked in interviews by small, large and MNC companies and the composition of interview panels, topics they focus on - common questions on software development, programming questions and project management topics.

If you did attend any written test as part of the Interview process then share those sample questions, to benefit everyone.

If you have experience in attending client, customer interviews for overseas positions then share some nice to say things in this process.

How do we negotiate salaries? how much should we ask? what must be the additional benefits you should look into in an HR interview. How do you sell yourself? What all you have to say about yourself.

Also, share some tips that everyone must go through to clear the technical and HR round of interviews - these tips to attend interviews can also include Do and Do Not's in an interview.

I hope that this post and the comments you share will benefit everyone who are looking out for a job and who are planning to change jobs.

With so many companies not doing so well and some IT companies also reducing their hiring count it is very important that you do well in your first interview attempt. Lot's of IT companies are going through layoffs.

QTP Interview Questions

QTP Interview Questions - Quick Test Professional HP


What are the Features & Benefits of Quick Test Pro (QTP 8.0)?

How to handle the exceptions using recovery scenario manager in QTP?

What is the use of Text output value in QTP?

How to use the Object spy in QTP 8.0 version?

How Does Run time data (Parametrization) is handled in QTP?

What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?

Explain about the Test Fusion Report of QTP?

Which environments does QTP support?

What is QTP?

Explain QTP Testing process?

How do you go about a Recording a session on your application

Explain Running your test on a new version of your application

Explain Analyzing the test results

How do you plan for Reporting defects

Explain the QTP Tool interface.

How does QTP recognize Objects in AUT?

What are the types of Object Repositories in QTP?

Explain the check points in QTP?

In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP?

How does QTP identify objects in the application?

What is Parametrize Tests?

What is test object model in QTP?

What is Object Spy in QTP?

What is the Difference between Image check-point and Bit map Check point?

How many ways we can parametrize data in QTP?

How do u do batch testing in WR & is it possible to do in QTP, if so explain?

If I give some thousand tests to execute in 2 days what do u do?

What does it mean when a check point is in red color? what do u do?

What is Object Spy in QTP?

What is the file extension of the code file & object repository file in QTP?

Explain the concept of object repository & how QTP recognizes objects?

What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page when using descriptive programming?

Give me an example where you have used a COM interface in your QTP project?

Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.

The answers for the above questions can be had from


What are the salient features of QTP?

What is Recovery in QTP?

What is a Checkpoint in QTP?

How many types of checkpoints are available in QTP?

How many types of main views of a script are available in QTP?

How results are generated in QTP?

What is a Virtual Object in QTP?

How can we handle the exceptions with the help of recovery scenario manager in QTP?

What is the use of Text output value in QTP?

What is the Object Spy feature in QTP?

What is Automation Object Model in QTP?

What is a Run-Time Data Table in QTP?

What are the properties used by the Smart Identification mechanism?

How many scripting languages can be used in QTP?

What are the Commonly used Excel VBA functions.

How QTP identifies various object?

What are object repositories in QTP?

How QTP recognizes objects in object repositories?

Is there any built-in function for scripting in QTP?

How many types of Actions are there in QTP?

How can we parameterize property values in QTP?

How can we modify the properties of test object in QTP?

How to retrieve the property of an object?

How to open or close any application during Scripting?

Why use Regular Expressions?

The answers for the above questions can be had from


Full form of QTP ?

Explain Quick Test Professional with respect to desktop application testing

What’s the QTP ?

QTP is Mercury Interactive Functional Testing Tool.

Which scripting language used by QTP ?

QTP uses VB scripting.

What’s the basic concept of QTP ?

How many types of recording facility are available in QTP ?

How many types of Parameters are available in QTP ?

What’s the QTP testing process ?

What’s the Active Screen ?

What’s Data Table ?

What’s the Test Tree ?

Which all environment QTP supports ?

How can you view the Test Tree ?

What’s the Expert View ?

Which keyword used for Nornam Recording ?

Which keyword used for run the test script ?

Which keyword used for stop the recording ?

Which keyword used for Analog Recording ?

Which keyword used for Low Level Recording ?

Which keyword used for switch between Tree View and Expert View ?

What’s the Transaction ?

Where you can view the results of the checkpoint ?

What’s the Standard Checkpoint ?

Which environment are supported by Standard Checkpoint ?

What’s the Image Checkpoint ?

Which environments are supported by Image Checkpoint ?

What’s the Bitmap Checkpoint ?

Which enviornment are supported by Bitmap Checkpoints ?

What’s the Table Checkpoints ?

Which environments are supported by Table Checkpoint ?

What’s the Text Checkpoint ?

Which environment are supported by Test Checkpoint ?

The answers for the above questions can be viewed at

PHP Interview Questions

PHP Interview Questions - Web Applications

What is PHP?

What can PHP do?

Installing PHP on your Computer? What do you need?

What is Apache?

What Storage Engines do you use in MySQL?

How can you block certain IP Addresses from accessing your site?

How to reverse a string in php with out using any built in functions?

How we can pass data from PHP to ASP,ASP.net?

How to convert ASP Arrays to PHP and vice versa ?

PHP Functions for WDDX

Which function in PHP gives us absolute path of a file on the server?

which is faster mysql_unbuffered_query or mysql_query ?

why should we use Object oriented concepts in php ?

What is the difference between $message and $$message?

How to capture content from the output buffer ? or Give me an example for Output caching in php?

How to capture content from the output buffer ? or Give me an example for Output caching in php?

what are the most common caching policy approaches ?

what is the php solution to dynamic caching ?

How do I prevent Web browsers caching a page in php?

How do I prevent Web browsers caching a page in php?

what is Memcache?

Are php strings immutable ?

What Are PHP Arrays?

Explain Parse Errors ? what are the most common causes of parse errors ?

what are the 'function problems' you have met in php?

will persistent connection work in the CGI version of php ? mysql_connect() vs mysql_pconnect()

What is the process that takes place when you upload a file in php?

List out some session functions in php?

What is meant by Persistent Database Connections?

How many ways your web server can utilize PHP to generate web pages?

how to opening excel files in windows and linux using php ?

what are the ways to check image mime types in php?

Given a line of text $string, how would you write a regular expression to strip all the HTML tags from it?

what you should know about cookies before start using in php?

what are the database space-saving functions available in php ?

what are the security tips you should know before developing php/mysql web pages ?

How to get the contents of a web page using php?

what are the advantages of storing sessions in database?

How many HTTP headers will send to a web page(client side) from server when you use sessions (session_start()) in php ?.

How to reverse "Madras,Php,Cookies,Arrays,Mysql, LAMP,w3answers,malayalam" as sardaM,phP,seikooC,syarrA,lqsyM, PMAL,srewsna3w,malayalam using php.

How to reverse an array values using recursive method in php ?

What is a class in Java programming?

What is the use of ob_start in php?

Difference between echo and print?

Interview Questions on Networking

Interview Questions on Networking

Here are some interview questions on Networking - the topics covered include the following Networking categories:

Networking Protocols, Networking Administration, Networking Security, All other Networking categories

Interview Questions on the above Networking Categories

What is the opportunity in MCSE and CCNA ?

What is the command to start a service in Windows from command line?

How do you check the listening ports on a windows box? Command line.

what is uplink?

what is Organizer?

What is patch panel? what is the use

What is the Difference between Broadcast Domain and Collision Domain and where it is used ?

How can i check registry of the New Installing software.

What database Active directory contains?

What if the machine doesn't show entry in Network neighborhood and its showing it in Active directory users and computers?

Why LDAP is called light weight?

Why we called Active directory is active?

What are the properties of universal Trojan horses?

What defensive mechanisms for viruses can be encountered?

Name firewall architectures?

Describe the term intrusion detection in the context of IT security?

What is active Directory? what is main role in windows 2003 server?

What is the tcp/ip protocol number

what are the service primitives present in cn?

layers of osi model?

how to change mac address of a system ?

Does DNS use TCP or UDP or both?

What is the Importance of protocols in networking

What is the difference between tcp and ip?

what is the use of RAM and processor

how we can access 2 networks at a time from a system lets say 1)local network and 2)internet

why does blue screen of death occurs while installing the windows XP or any other OS installation

how to increase the ping packet size from 32 bytes to more bytes ?

why we need MAC address in data link layer?

Talk about different types of cables used in lan cabling?

Tell the correct definition of router, hub and switch and where do we use these?

what do you mean by gateway?

What is firewall?

Action Script Flash Interview Questions

Action Script and Flash Interview Questions

For other information on Flex Interview Questions - Adobe Flex - see below

These questions are applicable for Action Script AS 1 As2 and AS3.0

How do you set Dates in a Flash MX Document?

How do you test the accessibility features of a user’s Flash Player so customized contents may be displayed?

How do you stop a movie clip?

How do you make an object dragable?

How do you create a movie that rotates dynamically?

How do you create a pop up window?

How do you open a PDF file from Flash MX?

What is the use of depth? how many methods for depth are available?

Difference between _root and _level

How do you make a Flash movie full screen?

How do you create a Flash MX form?

How do you load an external text file within Flash MX?

How do you create a drop down menu in Flash MX?

What is the difference between _root and parent?

Can you organize layers as in photoshop?

How do you start a graphic animation at a specific frame?

How to download Flash object embeded in HTML Page?

what is the other way of using Inheritance in flash?

what are the different design patterns available in flash?

There are two text fields on stage both are having same properties but still one is coming blurred y and how could u resolve it?

what is the use of new property condensed white in text?

Is it possible to create document or folder from flash? if yes then how?

What is use of preloader?

What are the different ways for creating preloaders

Difference between shared lib and shared objects

How do you change a cursor?

How can one draw a line with Action Script?

How do you detect the Flash player version?

XML Web Services and Remoting Interview Questions

Here is a list of Interview Questions on XML, Web Services, .NET, DOTNET Webservices and Remoting

What is a formatter?
A formatter is an object that is responsible for encoding and serializing data into messages on one end, and deserializing and decoding messages into data on the other end.

What is marshalling and what are different kinds of marshalling ?
Marshalling involves copying and processing data so that a complex type can appear to the receiving component the same as it appeared to the sending component. We can marshal by value and marshal by reference.

What is difference between web serivce and remoting?
ASP.NET based Web services can only be accessed over HTTP. .NET Remoting can be used across any protocol. Web services work in a stateless environment where each request results in a new object created to service the request. .NET Remoting supports state management options and can correlate multiple calls from the same client and support callbacks. Web services serialize objects through XML contained in the SOAP messages and can thus only handle items that can be fully expressed in XML. .NET Remoting relies on the existence of the common language runtime assemblies that contain information about data types. This limits the information that must be passed about an object and allows objects to be passed by value or by reference. Web services support interoperability across platforms and are good for heterogeneous environments. .NET Remoting requires the clients be built using .NET, or another framework that supports .NET Remoting, which means a homogeneous environment

What is WSDL?
Web Service Description Language to display the information of the web service to the consumer.

What is diffgram?
A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current and original versions of data elements. The DataSet uses the DiffGram format to load and persist its contents, and to serialize its contents for transport across a network connection.

What is XML transformation?
It is a language for converting XML documents from one format to another. Although it can be applied in a variety of ways, XSLT enjoys two primary uses: Converting XML documents into HTML documents and Converting XML documents into other XML documents.

What is SOAP?
SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging information between computers. Although SOAP can be used in a variety of messaging systems and can be delivered via a variety of transport protocols, the main focus of SOAP is Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) transported via HTTP. Like XML-RPC, SOAP is platform independent, and therefore enables diverse applications to communicate with one another.

Which class does the remote object has to inherit ?

What are two different types of remote object creation mode in .NET ?
SingleCall and SingleTon

What are channels in .NET Remoting?
Channels represent the objects that transfer the other serialized objects from one application domain to another and from one computer to another, as well as one process to another on the same box. A channel must exist before an object can be transferred.

What is the transport protocol you use to call a Web service

What are the various ways of accessing a web service?
Asynchronous and synchronous call

What is the purpose of schema definition(.xsd) files?
To create the tabular structure to sotre the final data in xml

What is the DOM?
The Document Object Model (DOM) class is an in-memory representation of an XML document. The DOM allows you to programmatically read, manipulate, and modify an XML document.

How many types of parsing mechanisms are avialble for xml?
In which scenerio we should use them? SAX, DTD, DOM

What is xpath and when is it used?
It is is a language for addressing parts of an XML document.

How to secure the web services properly? ??

What is serialization and deserialization? What are various way to do it?
Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Types are binary serialization and xml serialization.

What is differendce between DTD and schema? When and why do we need them? DTDs can't define data types of elements that appear in a document whereas the schema allows so. DTDs are written using a syntax that is completely removed from that of XML itself where as you can write an XML schema using the XML syntax you already know.

ADO.NET FAQ Interview Questions

Explain what a diffgram is and its usage ?
A DiffGram is an XML format that is used to identify current and original versions of data elements. The DataSet uses the DiffGram format to load and persist its contents, and to serialize its contents for transport across a network connection. When a DataSet is written as a DiffGram, it populates the DiffGram with all the necessary information to accurately recreate the contents, though not the schema, of the DataSet, including column values from both the Original and Current row versions, row error information, and row order.
When sending and retrieving a DataSet from an XML Web service, the DiffGram format is implicitly used.

Additionally, when loading the contents of a DataSet from XML using the ReadXml method, or when writing the contents of a DataSet in XML using the WriteXml method, you can select that the contents be read or written as a DiffGram.

The DiffGram format is divided into three sections: the current data, the original (or "before") data, and an errors section, as shown in the following example.

The DiffGram format consists of the following blocks of data:
The name of this element, DataInstance, is used for explanation purposes in this documentation. A DataInstance element represents a DataSet or a row of a DataTable. Instead of DataInstance, the element would contain the name of the DataSet or DataTable. This block of the DiffGram format contains the current data, whether it has been modified or not. An element, or row, that has been modified is identified with the diffgr:hasChanges annotation.

This block of the DiffGram format contains the original version of a row. Elements in this block are matched to elements in the DataInstance block using the diffgr:id annotation.

This block of the DiffGram format contains error information for a particular row in the DataInstance block. Elements in this block are matched to elements in the DataInstance block using the diffgr:id annotation.

Which method do you invoke on the DataAdapter control to load your generated dataset with data?
You have to use the Fill method of the DataAdapter control and pass the dataset object as an argument to load the generated data.

Can you edit data in the Repeater control?

Which are the different IsolationLevels ?
Following are the various IsolationLevels:
Serialized Data read by a current transaction cannot be changed by another transaction until the current transaction finishes. No new data can be inserted that would affect the current transaction. This is the safest isolation level and is the default.

Repeatable Read Data read by a current transaction cannot be changed by another transaction until the current transaction finishes. Any type of new data can be inserted during a transaction.

Read Committed A transaction cannot read data that is being modified by another transaction that has not committed. This is the default isolation level in Microsoft® SQL Server.

Read Uncommitted A transaction can read any data, even if it is being modified by another transaction. This is the least safe isolation level but allows the highest concurrency.

Any Any isolation level is supported. This setting is most commonly used by downstream components to avoid conflicts. This setting is useful because any downstream component must be configured with an isolation level that is equal to or less than the isolation level of its immediate upstream component. Therefore, a downstream component that has its isolation level configured as Any always uses the same isolation level that its immediate upstream component uses. If the root object in a transaction has its isolation level configured to Any, its isolation level becomes Serialized.

How xml files can be read and write using dataset?.
DataSet exposes method like ReadXml and WriteXml to read and write xml

What are the different rowversions available?
There are four types of Rowversions.Current:The current values for the row. This row version does not exist for rows with a RowState of Deleted.

Default :The row the default version for the current DataRowState. For a DataRowState value of Added, Modified or Current, the default version is Current. For a DataRowState of Deleted, the version is Original. For a DataRowState value of Detached, the version is Proposed.
Original:The row contains its original values.
Proposed:The proposed values for the row. This row version exists during an edit operation on a row, or for a row that is not part of a DataRowCollection

Explain acid properties?.
The term ACID conveys the role transactions play in mission-critical applications. Coined by transaction processing pioneers, ACID stands for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability.

These properties ensure predictable behavior, reinforcing the role of transactions as all-or-none propositions designed to reduce the management load when there are many variables.

Atomicity A transaction is a unit of work in which a series of operations occur between the BEGIN TRANSACTION and END TRANSACTION statements of an application. A transaction executes exactly once and is atomic — all the work is done or none of it is.

Operations associated with a transaction usually share a common intent and are interdependent. By performing only a subset of these operations, the system could compromise the overall intent of the transaction. Atomicity eliminates the chance of processing a subset of operations.

Consistency A transaction is a unit of integrity because it preserves the consistency of data, transforming one consistent state of data into another consistent state of data.

Consistency requires that data bound by a transaction be semantically preserved. Some of the responsibility for maintaining consistency falls to the application developer who must make sure that all known integrity constraints are enforced by the application. For example, in developing an application that transfers money, you should avoid arbitrarily moving decimal points during the transfer.

Isolation A transaction is a unit of isolation — allowing concurrent transactions to behave as though each were the only transaction running in the system.

Isolation requires that each transaction appear to be the only transaction manipulating the data store, even though other transactions may be running at the same time. A transaction should never see the intermediate stages of another transaction.

Transactions attain the highest level of isolation when they are serializable. At this level, the results obtained from a set of concurrent transactions are identical to the results obtained by running each transaction serially. Because a high degree of isolation can limit the number of concurrent transactions, some applications reduce the isolation level in exchange for better throughput.

Durability A transaction is also a unit of recovery. If a transaction succeeds, the system guarantees that its updates will persist, even if the computer crashes immediately after the commit. Specialized logging allows the system's restart procedure to complete unfinished operations, making the transaction durable.

Whate are different types of Commands available with DataAdapter ?
The SqlDataAdapter has SelectCommand, InsertCommand, DeleteCommand and UpdateCommand

AJAX Interview Questions

Some useful and most frequently asked interview questions on Ajax

If you are looking at jQuery Questions then please take a look at:
Javascript jQuery Interview programming questions

1. What is AJAX?
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a newly coined term for two powerful browser features that have been around for years, but were overlooked by many web developers until recently when applications such as Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps hit the streets.
AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.

2. Is the server or the client in control in AJAX?
It depends. With AJAX the answer is more in between. Control can be more centralized in a server-side component or as a mix of client-side and server-side controllers.

* Centralized server-side controller - When having a more centralized controller the key is to make sure the data in client-side page is in sync with that of the server. Some applications may keep all the state on the server and push all updates to client DOM via a simple JavaScript controller.

* Client and server-side controllers - This architecture would use JavaScript to do all presentation related control, event processing, page manipulation, and rendering of model data on the client. The server-side would be responsible for things such as business logic and pushing updated model data to the client. In this case the server would not have intimate knowledge of the presentation short of the initial page that would be sent to the client page request.

There are some use cases where an entire AJAX application can be written in a single page. Keep in mind if you choose this type of architecture that navigation and bookmarking should be considered.
Both methods are viable depending on what you are trying to accomplish. I tend to prefer spreading the control across the client and server.

3. What is the XMLHttpRequest object?
It offers a non-blocking way for JavaScript to communicate back to the web server to update only part of the web page.

4. How do I get the XMLHttpRequest object?
Depending upon the browser... if (window.ActiveXObject) { // Internet Explorer http_request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } else if.

5. How do I abort the current XMLHttpRequest?
Just call the abort() method on the request.

6. What is the role of Ajax in enhancing user experience?

7. Which browsers support AJAX?
Internet Explorer 5.0 and up, Opera 7.6 and up, Netscape 7.1 and up, Firefox 1.0 and up, Safari 1.2 and up, among others

8. What are the different frameworks available In AJAX?
There are many libraries/frameworks out there (and many more emerging) that will help abstract such things as all the nasty browser differences. Three good libraries are The Dojo Toolkit, Prototype, and DWR.

* The Dojo Toolkit contains APIs and widgets to support the development of rich web applications. Dojo contains an intelligent packaging system, UI effects, drag and drop APIs, widget APIs, event abstraction, client storage APIs, and AJAX interaction APIs. Dojo solves common usability issues such as support for dealing with the navigation such as the ability to detect the browser back button, the ability to support changes to the URL in the URL bar for bookmarking, and the ability to gracefully degrade when AJAX/JavaScript is not fully support on the client. Dojo is the Swiss Army Knife of JavaScript libraries. It provides the widest range of options in a single library and it does a very good job supporting new and older browsers.

* Prototype focuses on AJAX interactions including a JavaScript AJAX object that contains a few objects to do basic tasks such as make a request, update a portion of a document, insert content into a document, and update a portion of a document periodically. Prototype JavaScript library contains a set of JavaScript objects for representing AJAX requests and contains utility functions for accessing in page components and DOM manipulations. Script.aculo.us and Rico are built on top of Prototype and provide UI effects, support for drag and drop, and include common JavaScript centric widgets. If you are just looking to support AJAX interactions and a few basic tasks Prototype is great. If you are looking for UI effects Rico and Script.aculo.us are good options.

* Yahoo UI Library is a utility library and set of widgets using the APIs to support rich clients. The utility library includes support for cross-browser AJAX interactions, animation, DOM scriptging support, drag and drop, and cross browser event support. The Yahoo UI Library is well documnented and contains many examples.

* DWR (Dynamic Web Remoting) is a client-side and server-side framework that focuses on allowing a developer to do RPC calls from client-side JavaScript to plain old Java objects in a Java Enterprise Edition web container. On the server side DWR uses a Servlet to interact with the Java objects and returns object representations of the Java objects or XML documents. DWR will be easy to get up and running and plays well with other Java technologies. If you are looking for a client-side and server-side framework that integrates well use DWR.

* Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is client/server framework provided by Google that allows a developer to write an AJAX application in pure Java. The GWT takes care of the details of generating all the client-side code using a Java-to-JavaScript compiler. One of the key benefits of the GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is that it allows you to debug your applications in what is known as GWT hosted mode using an embedded browser (IE on Windows and Mozilla/Gecko on Linux) that is tied to the toolkit. In GWT hosted mode you setup through the code and debug it as it is running on both the client and server. The GWT contains a default set of widgets and widget containers. An application is built by coding a set of widgets and containers together much like would be done in a Swing application. The GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is limited to Linux and Windows XP/2000 though the web applications it generates are compatible with the latest generation of the mainstream browsers.

There are many new and emerging libraries for JavaScript and this list only reviews some of the more common libraries. When making a choice choose the library which suites your needs the best. While it might be better to choose one, there is nothing stopping you from using more than one framework. For a more extensive list of client-side frameworks see: Survey of AJAX/JavaScript Libraries.

9. Are there any security issues with AJAX?
JavaScript is in plain view to the user with by selecting view source of the page. JavaScript can not access the local filesystem without the user's permission. An AJAX interaction can only be made with the servers-side component from which the page was loaded. A proxy pattern could be used for AJAX interactions with external services.

You need to be careful not to expose your application model in such as way that your server-side components are at risk if a nefarious user to reverse engineer your application. As with any other web application, consider using HTTPS to secure the connection when confidential information is being exchanged.

10. Should I use an HTTP GET or POST for my AJAX calls?
AJAX requests should use an HTTP GET request when retrieving data where the data will not change for a given request URL. An HTTP POST should be used when state is updated on the server. This is in line with HTTP idempotency recommendations and is highly recommended for a consistent web application architecture.

11. Does AJAX work with Java?
Absolutely. Java is a great fit for AJAX! You can use Java Enterprise Edition servers to generate AJAX client pages and to serve incoming AJAX requests, manage server side state for AJAX clients, and connect AJAX clients to your enterprise resources. The JavaServer Faces component model is a great fit for defining and using AJAX components.

12. Is Ajax a technology platform or is it an architectural style?
It’s both. Ajax is a set of technologies being used together in a particular way.

13. Is AJAX code cross browser compatible?
Not totally. Most browsers offer a native XMLHttpRequest JavaScript object, while another one (Internet Explorer) require you to get it as an ActiveX object.

14. Is Ajax just another name for XMLHttpRequest?
No. XMLHttpRequest is only part of the Ajax equation. XMLHttpRequest is the technical component that makes the asynchronous server communication possible; Ajax is our name for the overall approach described in the article, which relies not only on XMLHttpRequest, but on CSS, DOM, and other technologies.

15. Is it possible to set session variables from javascript?
It's not possible to set any session variables directly from javascript as it is purely a client side technology.

16. Do Ajax applications always deliver a better experience than traditional web applications?
Not necessarily. Ajax gives interaction designers more flexibility. However, the more power we have, the more caution we must use in exercising it. We must be careful to use Ajax to enhance the user experience of our applications, not degrade it.

Project Management Interview Questions

PM Questions
Define project?
Who is a stakeholder?
Can you explain Scope triangle?
Can you explain what’s a vision and a goal?
What is ROI?
Can you explain project life cycle?
You have people in your team who do not meet there deadlines or do not perform whatare the actions you will take?
Are risk constant through out the project?
Explain SDLC (Software development Life Cycle) in detail?
Can you explain waterfall model?
Can you explain big-bang waterfall model?
Can you explain phased waterfall model?
Explain Iterative model, Incremental model, Spiral model, Evolutionary model and VModel?
Explain Unit testing, Integration tests, System testing and Acceptance testing?
what’s the difference between system and acceptance testing?
Which is the best model?
What is CAR (Causal Analysis and Resolution)?
What is DAR (Decision Analysis and Resolution)?
Can you explain the concept of baseline in software development?
What is the software you have used for project management?
What does a project plan consist?
When do you say the project has finished?
Can you explain what a PMO office is?
How many members in your team you have handled?
Is GANTT chart a project plan?
Two resources are having issues how do you handle the same?
What is a change request?
How did you manage change request in your project?
Can you explain traceability matrix?
what is configuration management?
What is CI?
Define stakeholders?
Can you explain versioning?
Can you explain the concept of sign off?
How will you start a project?
what is an MOU?
What where the deliverables in your project?
Can you explain your project?
Do you also participate in technical activities?
How did you manage code reviews?
you have team member who does not meets his deadlines how do you handle it?
did you have project audits if yes how was it handled?
What is a non-conformance report (NCR)?
How did you estimate your project?
How did you motivate your team members?
did you create leaders in your team if yes how?
how did you confirm that your modules are resource independent?
Was your project show cased for CMMI or any other project process standardization?
what are the functions of the Quality Assurance Group (QAG)?
Can you explain milestone?
How did you do assessme nt of team members?
What does entry and exit criteria mean in a project?
How much are you as leader and how much are you as PM ?
How can he handle the conflicts between peers and subordinates?
In your team you have highly talented people how did you ha ndle their motivation ?
How can you balance between underperforming and outperforming people ?
You need to make choice between delivery and quality what’s your take ?

Risk Management
Define risk?
What is risk break down structure?
How did you plan your risk?
what is DR, BCP and contingency planning?

Schedule Management
Can you explain WBS?
Can you explain WBS numbering?
How did you do resource allocation?
Can you explain the use of WBS?
Can you explain network diagram?
What are the different types of network diagram?
What is the advantage of using network diagrams?
Can you explain Arrow diagram and Precendence diagram?
What are the different types of Network diagrams?
Can you explain Critical path?
Can you define EST, LST, EFT, LFT?
Can you explain Float and Slack?
Can you explain PERT?
Can you explain GANTT chart?
What is the disadvantage of GANTT chart?
What is Monte-Carlo simulation?

Can you explain PV, AC and EV?
Can you explain BCWS, ACWS and BCWP?
What are the derived metrics from Earned Value?
Can you explain earned value with a sample?

Estimation, Metrics and Measure
What is meant by measure and metrics?
Which metrics have you used for tracking purpose?
What are the various common ways of estimation?
Can you explain LOC method of estimation?
How do we convert LOC in to effort?
Can you explain COCOMO?
Can you explain Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II?
How do you estimate using LOC?
Can you explain in brief Function points?
Can you explain the concept Application boundary?
Can you explain the concept of elementary process?
Can you explain the concept of static and dynamic elementary process?
Can you explain concept of FTR, ILF, EIF, EI, EO , EQ and GSC ?
How can you estimate number of acceptance test cases in a project?
Can you explain the concept of Use Case’s?
Can you explain the concept of Use case points?
What is a use case transaction?
How do we estimate using Use Case Points?
Can you explain on what basis does TPA actually work?
How did you do estimation for black box testing?
How did you estimate white box testing?
Is there a way to estimate acceptance test cases in a system?
Can you explain Number of defects measure?
Can you explain number of production defects measure?
Can you explain defect seeding?
Can you explain DRE?
Can you explain Unit and system test DRE?
How do you measure test effectiveness?
Can you explain Defect age and Defect spoilage?

Software process
What is a Software process?
what are the different cost eleme nt involved in implementing process in an organization?
What is a model?
What is maturity level?
Can you explain the concept of process area in CMMI?
Can you explain the concept of tailoring?

What is CMMI?
what’s the difference between implementation and Institutionalization?
what are different models in CMMI?
Can you explain staged and continuous models in CMMI?
Can you explain the different maturity levels in staged representation?
Can you explain capability levels in continuous representation?
which model should we use and under what scenarios?
How many process areas are present in CMMI and in what classification do they fall in?
What the difference between every level in CMMI?
what different sources are needed to verify authenticity for CMMI implementation?
Can you explain SCAMPI process?
How is appraisal done in CMMI?
which appraisal method class is the best?
Can you explain the importance of PII in SCAMPI?
Can you explain implementation of CMMI in one of the Key process areas?
Explanation of all process areas with goals and practices?
Can you explain the process areas?

Six Sigma
What is six sigma?
Can you explain the different methodology for execution and design process in SIXsigma?
What does executive leaders, champions, Master Black belt, green belts and black beltsmean?
What are the different kinds of variations used in six sigma?
Can you explain the concept of standard deviation?
Can you explain the concept of fish bone/ Ishikawa diagram?
What is Pareto principle?
Can you explain QFD?
Can you explain FMEA?
Can you explain X bar charts?
Can you explain Flow charting and brain storming?

Agile Development
What does Agile mean?
Can you explain Agile modelling?
What are core and supplementary principles in Agile modeling?
What is the main principle behind Agile documentation?
What are the different methodologies to implement Agile?
What is XP?
What are User Stories in XP and how different are they from requirement?
Who writes User stories?
When do we say a story is valid?
When are test plans written in XP?
Can you explain the XP development life cycle?
Can you explain how planning game works in Extreme Programming?
How do we estimate in Agile?
On What basis can stories be prioritized?
Can you point out simple differences between Agile and traditional SDLC?
Can you explain the concept of refactoring?
What is a feature in Feature Driven Development?
Can you explain the overall structure of FDD project?
Can you explain the concept of time boxing?
When to choose FDD and when to choose XP?
What is SCRUM?
What does product owner, product back log and sprint mean in SCRUM?
Can you explain how SCRUM flows?
Can you explain different roles in SCRUM?
Can you explain DSDM?
Can you explain different phases in DSDM?
Can you explain in detail project life cycle phase in DSDM?
Can you explain LSD?
Can you explain ASD?

Javascript Interview Questions

Here are some of the javascript questions along with answers that you can refer to before appearing for the interview.

Also, if you are looking for jQuery then please read this.

jQuery Interview Questions

1. What’s relationship between JavaScript and ECMAScript? -
ECMAScript is yet another name for JavaScript (other names include LiveScript). The current JavaScript that you see supported in browsers is ECMAScript revision 3.

2. What are JavaScript types? -
Number, String, Boolean, Function, Object, Null, Undefined.

3. How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript? -
Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);

4. What does isNaN function do? -
Return true if the argument is not a number.

5. What is negative infinity? -
It’s a number in JavaScript, derived by dividing negative number by zero.

6. What boolean operators does JavaScript support? -
&&, and !

7. What does "1"+2+4 evaluate to? -
Since 1 is a string, everything is a string, so the result is 124.

8. How about 2+5+"8"? -
Since 2 and 5 are integers, this is number arithmetic, since 8 is a string, it’s concatenation, so 78 is the result.

9. What looping structures are there in JavaScript? -
for, while, do-while loops, but no foreach.

10. How do you create a new object in JavaScript? -
var obj = new Object(); or var obj = {};

11. How do you assign object properties? -
obj["age"] = 17 or obj.age = 17.

12. What’s a way to append a value to an array? -
arr[arr.length] = value;

13. What is this keyword? -
It refers to the current object.

14. What is the difference between this() and super()?
this() can be used to invoke a constructor of the same class whereas super() can be used to invoke a super class constructor.

15. Where are cookies actually stored on the hard disk?
This depends on the user’s browser and OS.In the case of Netscape with Windows OS,all the cookies are stored in a single file called cookies.txt
c:\Program Files\Netscape\Users\username\cookies.txt
In the case of IE,each cookie is stored in a separate file namely username@website.txt.

16. How to set a HTML document's background color?
document.bgcolor property can be set to any appropriate color.

17. How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript?
Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);

18. How to create arrays in JavaScript?
We can declare an array like this
var scripts = new Array();
We can add elements to this array like this
scripts[0] = "PHP";
scripts[1] = "ASP";
scripts[2] = "JavaScript";
scripts[3] = "HTML";
Now our array scrips has 4 elements inside it and we can print or access them by using their index number. Note that index number starts from 0. To get the third element of the array we have to use the index number 2 . Here is the way to get the third element of an array.
We also can create an array like this
var no_array = new Array(21, 22, 23, 24, 25);

19. How do you target a specific frame from a hyperlink?
Include the name of the frame in the target attribute of the hyperlink. >My Page

20. In a pop-up browser window, how do you refer to the main browser window that opened it?
Use window.opener to refer to the main window from pop-ups.

21. What is the data type of variables of in JavaScript?
All variables are of object type in JavaScript.

22. Methods GET and POST in HTML forms - what's the difference?
GET: Parameters are passed in the query string. Maximum amount of data that can be sent via the GET method is limited to about 2kb.
POST: Parameters are passed in the request body. There is no limit to the amount of data that can be transferred using POST. However, there are limits on the maximum amount of data that can be transferred in one name/value pair.

23. Is a JavaScript script faster than an ASP script?
Yes. Since JavaScript is a client-side script it does require the web server's help for its computation, so it is always faster than any server-side script like ASP, PHP, etc..

24. What is the difference between RegisterClientScriptBlock and RegisterStartupScript?
RegisterClientScriptBlock emits the JavaScript just after the opening tag. RegisterStartupScript emits the JavaScript at the bottom of the ASP. NET page just before the closing tag.

25. What is the difference between a web-garden and a web-farm?
Web-garden - An IIS6.0 feature where you can configure an application pool as a web-garden and also specify the number of worker processes for that pool. It can help improve performance in some cases.
Web-farm - a general term referring to a cluster of physically separate machines, each running a web-server for scalability and performance (contrast this with web-garden which refers to multiple processes on one single physical machine).

26. How to get the contents of an input box using JavaScript?
Use the "value" property.
var myValue = window.document.getElementById("MyTextBox").value;

27. How to set the focus in an element using Javascript?

28. What is the difference between an alert box and a confirmation box?
An alert box displays only one button which is the OK button whereas the Confirm box displays two buttons namely OK and cancel.

29. What would the output of 2+5+"8"?
Since 2 and 5 are integers, this is number arithmetic, since 8 is a string, it’s concatenation, so 78 is the result.

30. What is the difference between SessionState and ViewState?
ViewState is specific to a page in a session. Session state refers to user specific data that can be accessed across all pages in the web application.

31. Does JavaScript have the concept level scope?
No. Javascript does not have block level scope, all the variables declared inside a function possess the same level of scope unlike c, c++, java.

ASP.NET Server side Interview Questions

Question:-What do you mean by Share Point Portal ?
Answer: Here I have taken information regarding Share Point Portal Server 2003 provides mainly access to the crucial business information and applications.With the help of Share Point Server we can server information between Public Folders, Data Bases, File Servers and the websites that are based on Windows server 2003. This Share Point Portal is integrated with MSAccess and Windows servers,So we can get a Wide range of document management functionality. We can also create a full featured portal with readymade navigation and structure.

Question:-What is cross page posting in ASP.NET2.0 ?
Answer: When we have to post data from one page to another in application we used server.transfer method but in this the URL remains the same but in cross page posting there is little different there is normal post back is done but in target page we can access values of server control in the source page. This is quite simple we have to only set the PostBackUrl property of Button,LinkButton or imagebutton which specifies the target page.In target page we can access the PreviousPage property. And we have to use the @PreviousPageType directive. We can access control of PreviousPage by using the findcontrol method.When we set the PostBackURL property ASP.NET framework bind the HTML and Javascript function automatically.

Question: What you thing about the WebPortal ?
Answer: Web portal is nothing but a page that allows a user to customize his/her homepage. We can use Widgets to create that portal we have only to drag and drop widgets on the page. The user can set his Widgets on any where on the page where he has to get them. Widgets are nothing but a page area that helps particular function to response. Widgets example are address books, contact lists, RSS feeds, clocks, calendars, play lists, stock tickers, weather reports, traffic reports, dictionaries, games and another such beautiful things that we can not imagine. We can also say Web Parts in Share Point Portal. These are one of Ajax-Powered.

Question: How to start Outlook,NotePad file in AsP.NET with code ?
Answer: Here is the syntax to open outlook or notepad file in ASP.NET VB.NET Process.Start("Notepad.exe") Process.Start("msimn.exe"); C#.NET System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("msimn.exe"); System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("Notepad.exe");

Question: What is the purpose of IIS ?
Answer: We can call IIS(Internet Information Services) a powerful Web server that helps us creating highly reliable, scalable and manageable infrastructure for Web application which runs on Windows Server 2003. IIS helps development center and increase Web site and application availability while lowering system administration costs. It also runs on Windows NT/2000 platforms and also for above versions. With IIS, Microsoft includes a set of programs for building and administering Web sites, a search engine, and support for writing Web-based applications that access database. IIS also called http server since it process the http request and gets http response.

Question:-Can you define what is SharePoint and some overview about this ?
Answer: SharePoint helps workers for creating powerful personalized interfaces only by dragging and drop pre-defined Web Part Components. And these Web Parts components also helps non programmers to get information which care and customize the appearance of Web pages. To under stand it we take an example one Web Part might display a user's information another might create a graph showing current employee status and a third might show a list of Employees Salary. This is also possible that each functions has a link to a video or audio presentation.So now Developers are unable to create these Web Part components and make them available to SharePoint users.

Question:-What is different between WebUserControl and in WebCustomControl ?
Answer: Web user controls :- Web User Control is Easier to create and another thing is that its support is limited for users who use a visual design tool one gud thing is that its contains static layout one more thing a seprate copy is required for each application. Web custom controls:-Web Custom Control is typical to create and gud for dynamic layout and another thing is it have full tool support for user and a single copy of control is required because it is placed in Global Assembly cache.

Question:-What is Sandbox in SQL server and explain permission level in Sql Server ?
Answer: Sandbox is place where we run trused program or script which is created from the third party. There are three type of Sandbox where user code run.Safe Access Sandbox:-Here we can only create stored procedure,triggers,functions,datatypes etc.But we doesnot have acess memory ,disk etc.External Access Sandbox:-We cn access File systems outside the box. We can not play with threading,memory allocation etc.Unsafe Access Sandbox:-Here we can write unreliable and unsafe code.

Question:-How many types of cookies are there in .NET ?
Answer: Two type of cookeies.a) single valued eg request.cookies(”UserName”).value=”dotnetquestion”b)Multivalued cookies. These are used in the way collections are used examplerequest.cookies(”CookiName”)(”UserName”)=”dotnetquestionMahesh”request.cookies(”CookiName”)(”UserID”)=”interview″

Question: When we get Error 'HTTP 502 Proxy Error' ?
Answer: We get this error when we execute ASP.NET Web pages in Visual Web Developer Web server, because the URL randomly select port number and proxy servers did not recognize the URL and return this error. To resolve this problem we have to change settings in Internet Explorer to bypass the proxy server for local addresses, so that the request is not sent to the proxy.

Question:-What do you mean by three-tier architecture?
Answer: The three-tier architecture was comes into existence to improve management of code and contents and to improve the performance of the web based applications.There are mainly three layers in three-tier architecture.the are define as follows (1)Presentation (2)Business Logic (3)Database (1)First layer Presentation contains mainly the interface code, and this is shown to user. This code could contain any technology that can be used on the client side like HTML, JavaScript or VBScript etc.(2)Second layer is Business Logic which contains all the code of the server-side .This layer have code to interact with database database and to query, manipulate, pass data to user interface and handle any input from the UI as well. (3)Third layer Data represents the data store like MS Access, SQL Server, an XML file, an Excel file or even a text file containing data also some addtional database are also added to that layers.Question: What is Finalizer in .NET define Dispose and Finalize ?Answer: We can say that Finalizer are the methods that's helps in cleanp the code that is executed before object is garbage collected .The process is called finalization . There are two methods of finalizer Dispose and Finalize .There is little diffrenet between two of this method .When we call Dispose method is realse all the resources hold by an object as well as all the resorces hold by the parent object.When we call Dispose method it clean managed as well as unmanaged resources.Finalize methd also cleans resources but finalize call dispose clears only the unmanged resources because in finalization the garbase collecter clears all the object hold by managed code so finalization fails to prevent thos one of methd is used that is: GC.SuppressFinalize.

Question: Define SMTPclient class in DotNet framework class libarary ?
Answer: Each classes in dotnet framework inclue some properties,method and events.These properties ,methods and events are member of a class.SMTPclient class mainly concern with sending mail.This class contain the folling member.Properties:-Host:-The name or IP address of email server.Port:-Port that is use when sending mail.Methods:-Send:-Enables us to send email synchronously.SendAsynchronous:-Enables us to send an email asynchronously.Event:-SendCompleted:-This event raised when an asynchronous send opertion completes.

Question: What is late binding ?

Answer: When code interacts with an object dynamically at runtime .because our code literally doesnot care what type of object it is interacting and with the methods thats are supported by object and with the methods thats are supported by object .The type of object is not known by the IDE or compiler ,no Intellisense nor compile-time syntax checking is possible but we get unprecedented flexibilty in exchange.if we enable strict type checking by using option strict on at the top of our code modules ,then IDE and compiler will enforce early binding behaviour .By default Late binding is done.

Question:-Does .NET CLR and SQL SERVER run in different process ?
Answer: Dot Net CLR and all .net realtes application and Sql Server run in same process or we can say that that on the same address because there is no issue of speed because if these two process are run in different process then there may be a speed issue created one process goes fast and other slow may create the problem.

Question:-What is Com Marshler and its importance in .NET ?
Answer: Com Marshler is one of useful component of CLR. Its Task is to marshal data between Managed and Unmanaged environment .It helps in representation of data accross diffrenet execution enviroment.It performs the conversion of data format between manage and unmanaged code.By the helps of Com Marshlar CLR allows manage code to interoperate with unmanaged code.

Question: What is CSU and its description ?
Answer: CSU stands for comma separate values also called comma delimited.It is plain text file which stores spreadsheets or basic datatype in very simple format.One record in each line and each field separted with comma's it is often used to transfer large ammount spreadsheet data or database information between program.

Question: The IHttpHandler and IHttpHandlerFactory interfaces ?
Answer: The IHttpHandler interface is implemented by all the handlers. The interface consists of one property called IsReusable. The IsReusable property gets a value indicating whether another request can use the IHttpHandler instance. The method ProcessRequest() allows you to process the current request. This is the core place where all your code goes. This method receives a parameter of type HttpContext using which you can access the intrinsic objects such as Request and Response. The IHttpHandlerFactory interface consists of two methods - GetHandler and ReleaseHandler. The GetHandler() method instantiates the required HTTP handler based on some condition and returns it back to ASP.NET. The ReleaseHandler() method allows the factory to reuse an existing handler.

Question: what is Viewstate?

Answer:View state is used by the ASP.NET page framework to automatically save the values of the page and of each control just prior to rendering to the page. When the page is posted, one of the first tasks performed by page processing is to restore view state. State management is the process by which you maintain state and page information over multiple requests for the same or different pages. Client-side options are:
* The ViewState property
* Query strings
* Hidden fields
* Cookies
Server-side options are:
* Application state
* Session state
* DataBase
Use the View State property to save data in a hidden field on a page. Because ViewState stores data on the page, it is limited to items that can be serialized. If you want to store more complex items in View State, you must convert the items to and from a string.ASP.NET provides the following ways to retain variables between requests:Context.Handler object Use this object to retrieve public members of one Web form’s class from a subsequently displayed Web form. Query strings Use these strings to pass information between requests and responses as part of the Web address. Query strings are visible to the user, so they should not contain secure information such as passwords. Cookies Use cookies to store small amounts of information on a client. Clients might refuse cookies, so your code has to anticipate that possibility. View state ASP.NET stores items added to a page’s ViewState property as hidden fields on the page.Session state Use Session state variables to store items that you want keep local to the current session (single user).Application state Use Application state variables to store items that you want be available to all users of the application.

Answer: While excuting the page, it will go under the fallowing steps(or fires the events) which collectivly known as Page Life cycle.Page_Init -- Page InitializationLoadViewState -- View State LoadingLoadPostData -- Postback data processingPage_Load -- Page LoadingRaisePostDataChangedEvent -- PostBack Change NotificationRaisePostBackEvent -- PostBack Event HandlingPage_PreRender -- Page Pre Rendering PhaseSaveViewState -- View State SavingPage_Render -- Page Rendering Page_UnLoad -- Page Unloading

Question: What is Satellite Assemblies ?
Answer: Satellite assemblies are often used to deploy language-specific resources for an application. These language-specific assemblies work in side-by-side execution because the application has a separate product ID for each language and installs satellite assemblies in a language-specific subdirectory for each language. When uninstalling, the application removes only the satellite assemblies associated with a given language and .NET Framework version. No core .NET Framework files are removed unless the last language for that .NET Framework version is being removed. For example, English and Japanese editions of the .NET Framework version 1.1 share the same core files. The Japanese .NET Framework version 1.1 adds satellite assemblies with localized resources in a \ja subdirectory. An application that supports the .NET Framework version 1.1, regardless of its language, always uses the same core runtime files.

Question: What is CAS ?
Answer:CAS: CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk. How does CAS work? The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts - code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set. For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the 'Zone - Internet' code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the 'Internet' named permission set. (Naturally the 'Internet' named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)

Question: Automatic Memory Management ?
Answer: Automatic Memory Management: From a programmer's perspective, this is probably the single biggest benefit of the .NET Framework. No, I'm not kidding. Every project I've worked on in my long career of DOS and Windows development has suffered at some point from memory management issues. Proper memory management is hard. Even very good programmers have difficulty with it. It's entirely too easy for a small mistake to cause a program to chew up memory and crash, sometimes bringing the operating system to a screeching halt in the process.Programmers understand that they're responsible for releasing any memory that they allocate, but they're not very good at actually doing it. In addition, functions that allocate memory as a side effect abound in the Windows API and in the C runtime library. It's nearly impossible for a programmer to know all of the rules. Even when the programmer follows the rules, a small memory leak in a support library can cause big problems if called enough.The .NET Framework solves the memory management problems by implementing a garbage collector that can keep track of allocated memory references and release the memory when it is no longer referenced. A large part of what makes this possible is the blazing speed of today's processors. When you're running a 2 GHz machine, it's easy to spare a few cycles for memory management. Not that the garbage collector takes a huge number of cycles--it's incredibly efficient.The garbage collector isn't perfect and it doesn't solve the problem of mis-managing other scarce resources (file handles, for example), but it relieves programmers from having to worry about a huge source of bugs that trips almost everybody up in other programming environments.On balance, automatic memory management is a huge win in almost every situation.

Question: What Language familar to CLR?
Answer: Any language that can be compiled into Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) is considered a .NET-compliant language. Following are a few of the popular .NET-compliant languages supported by CLR:
Component Pascal
Visual Basic
Visual C#
Visual C++

Advanced C# Questions

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?
StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created.

Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?

What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow.

How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key?

What’s class SortedList underneath?
A sorted HashTable.

Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred?

What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

Can multiple catch blocks be executed?
No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block.

Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions?
Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

What’s a delegate?
A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers.

What’s a multicast delegate?
It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods.

How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET?
Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

What are the ways to deploy an assembly?
An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

What’s a satellite assembly?
When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?
System.Globalization, System.Resources.

What’s the difference between and XML documentation tag?
Single line code example and multiple-line code example.

Is XML case-sensitive?
Yes, so and are different elements.

What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?
CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

What does the This window show in the debugger?
It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown.

What does assert() do?
In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?
Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?
The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.

Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?
To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application?
Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?
Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?
Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?
SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections?
It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is executed.

What is the wildcard character in SQL?
Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

Why would you use untrusted verificaion?
Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications.

What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database?

What does Dispose method do with the connection object?
Deletes it from the memory.

What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling?
Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.