AJAX Interview Questions

Some useful and most frequently asked interview questions on Ajax

If you are looking at jQuery Questions then please take a look at:
Javascript jQuery Interview programming questions

1. What is AJAX?
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a newly coined term for two powerful browser features that have been around for years, but were overlooked by many web developers until recently when applications such as Gmail, Google Suggest, and Google Maps hit the streets.
AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.

2. Is the server or the client in control in AJAX?
It depends. With AJAX the answer is more in between. Control can be more centralized in a server-side component or as a mix of client-side and server-side controllers.

* Centralized server-side controller - When having a more centralized controller the key is to make sure the data in client-side page is in sync with that of the server. Some applications may keep all the state on the server and push all updates to client DOM via a simple JavaScript controller.

* Client and server-side controllers - This architecture would use JavaScript to do all presentation related control, event processing, page manipulation, and rendering of model data on the client. The server-side would be responsible for things such as business logic and pushing updated model data to the client. In this case the server would not have intimate knowledge of the presentation short of the initial page that would be sent to the client page request.

There are some use cases where an entire AJAX application can be written in a single page. Keep in mind if you choose this type of architecture that navigation and bookmarking should be considered.
Both methods are viable depending on what you are trying to accomplish. I tend to prefer spreading the control across the client and server.

3. What is the XMLHttpRequest object?
It offers a non-blocking way for JavaScript to communicate back to the web server to update only part of the web page.

4. How do I get the XMLHttpRequest object?
Depending upon the browser... if (window.ActiveXObject) { // Internet Explorer http_request = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP"); } else if.

5. How do I abort the current XMLHttpRequest?
Just call the abort() method on the request.

6. What is the role of Ajax in enhancing user experience?

7. Which browsers support AJAX?
Internet Explorer 5.0 and up, Opera 7.6 and up, Netscape 7.1 and up, Firefox 1.0 and up, Safari 1.2 and up, among others

8. What are the different frameworks available In AJAX?
There are many libraries/frameworks out there (and many more emerging) that will help abstract such things as all the nasty browser differences. Three good libraries are The Dojo Toolkit, Prototype, and DWR.

* The Dojo Toolkit contains APIs and widgets to support the development of rich web applications. Dojo contains an intelligent packaging system, UI effects, drag and drop APIs, widget APIs, event abstraction, client storage APIs, and AJAX interaction APIs. Dojo solves common usability issues such as support for dealing with the navigation such as the ability to detect the browser back button, the ability to support changes to the URL in the URL bar for bookmarking, and the ability to gracefully degrade when AJAX/JavaScript is not fully support on the client. Dojo is the Swiss Army Knife of JavaScript libraries. It provides the widest range of options in a single library and it does a very good job supporting new and older browsers.

* Prototype focuses on AJAX interactions including a JavaScript AJAX object that contains a few objects to do basic tasks such as make a request, update a portion of a document, insert content into a document, and update a portion of a document periodically. Prototype JavaScript library contains a set of JavaScript objects for representing AJAX requests and contains utility functions for accessing in page components and DOM manipulations. Script.aculo.us and Rico are built on top of Prototype and provide UI effects, support for drag and drop, and include common JavaScript centric widgets. If you are just looking to support AJAX interactions and a few basic tasks Prototype is great. If you are looking for UI effects Rico and Script.aculo.us are good options.

* Yahoo UI Library is a utility library and set of widgets using the APIs to support rich clients. The utility library includes support for cross-browser AJAX interactions, animation, DOM scriptging support, drag and drop, and cross browser event support. The Yahoo UI Library is well documnented and contains many examples.

* DWR (Dynamic Web Remoting) is a client-side and server-side framework that focuses on allowing a developer to do RPC calls from client-side JavaScript to plain old Java objects in a Java Enterprise Edition web container. On the server side DWR uses a Servlet to interact with the Java objects and returns object representations of the Java objects or XML documents. DWR will be easy to get up and running and plays well with other Java technologies. If you are looking for a client-side and server-side framework that integrates well use DWR.

* Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is client/server framework provided by Google that allows a developer to write an AJAX application in pure Java. The GWT takes care of the details of generating all the client-side code using a Java-to-JavaScript compiler. One of the key benefits of the GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is that it allows you to debug your applications in what is known as GWT hosted mode using an embedded browser (IE on Windows and Mozilla/Gecko on Linux) that is tied to the toolkit. In GWT hosted mode you setup through the code and debug it as it is running on both the client and server. The GWT contains a default set of widgets and widget containers. An application is built by coding a set of widgets and containers together much like would be done in a Swing application. The GWT Software Developer Kit (SDK) is limited to Linux and Windows XP/2000 though the web applications it generates are compatible with the latest generation of the mainstream browsers.

There are many new and emerging libraries for JavaScript and this list only reviews some of the more common libraries. When making a choice choose the library which suites your needs the best. While it might be better to choose one, there is nothing stopping you from using more than one framework. For a more extensive list of client-side frameworks see: Survey of AJAX/JavaScript Libraries.

9. Are there any security issues with AJAX?
JavaScript is in plain view to the user with by selecting view source of the page. JavaScript can not access the local filesystem without the user's permission. An AJAX interaction can only be made with the servers-side component from which the page was loaded. A proxy pattern could be used for AJAX interactions with external services.

You need to be careful not to expose your application model in such as way that your server-side components are at risk if a nefarious user to reverse engineer your application. As with any other web application, consider using HTTPS to secure the connection when confidential information is being exchanged.

10. Should I use an HTTP GET or POST for my AJAX calls?
AJAX requests should use an HTTP GET request when retrieving data where the data will not change for a given request URL. An HTTP POST should be used when state is updated on the server. This is in line with HTTP idempotency recommendations and is highly recommended for a consistent web application architecture.

11. Does AJAX work with Java?
Absolutely. Java is a great fit for AJAX! You can use Java Enterprise Edition servers to generate AJAX client pages and to serve incoming AJAX requests, manage server side state for AJAX clients, and connect AJAX clients to your enterprise resources. The JavaServer Faces component model is a great fit for defining and using AJAX components.

12. Is Ajax a technology platform or is it an architectural style?
It’s both. Ajax is a set of technologies being used together in a particular way.

13. Is AJAX code cross browser compatible?
Not totally. Most browsers offer a native XMLHttpRequest JavaScript object, while another one (Internet Explorer) require you to get it as an ActiveX object.

14. Is Ajax just another name for XMLHttpRequest?
No. XMLHttpRequest is only part of the Ajax equation. XMLHttpRequest is the technical component that makes the asynchronous server communication possible; Ajax is our name for the overall approach described in the article, which relies not only on XMLHttpRequest, but on CSS, DOM, and other technologies.

15. Is it possible to set session variables from javascript?
It's not possible to set any session variables directly from javascript as it is purely a client side technology.

16. Do Ajax applications always deliver a better experience than traditional web applications?
Not necessarily. Ajax gives interaction designers more flexibility. However, the more power we have, the more caution we must use in exercising it. We must be careful to use Ajax to enhance the user experience of our applications, not degrade it.

Project Management Interview Questions

PM Questions
Define project?
Who is a stakeholder?
Can you explain Scope triangle?
Can you explain what’s a vision and a goal?
What is ROI?
Can you explain project life cycle?
You have people in your team who do not meet there deadlines or do not perform whatare the actions you will take?
Are risk constant through out the project?
Explain SDLC (Software development Life Cycle) in detail?
Can you explain waterfall model?
Can you explain big-bang waterfall model?
Can you explain phased waterfall model?
Explain Iterative model, Incremental model, Spiral model, Evolutionary model and VModel?
Explain Unit testing, Integration tests, System testing and Acceptance testing?
what’s the difference between system and acceptance testing?
Which is the best model?
What is CAR (Causal Analysis and Resolution)?
What is DAR (Decision Analysis and Resolution)?
Can you explain the concept of baseline in software development?
What is the software you have used for project management?
What does a project plan consist?
When do you say the project has finished?
Can you explain what a PMO office is?
How many members in your team you have handled?
Is GANTT chart a project plan?
Two resources are having issues how do you handle the same?
What is a change request?
How did you manage change request in your project?
Can you explain traceability matrix?
what is configuration management?
What is CI?
Define stakeholders?
Can you explain versioning?
Can you explain the concept of sign off?
How will you start a project?
what is an MOU?
What where the deliverables in your project?
Can you explain your project?
Do you also participate in technical activities?
How did you manage code reviews?
you have team member who does not meets his deadlines how do you handle it?
did you have project audits if yes how was it handled?
What is a non-conformance report (NCR)?
How did you estimate your project?
How did you motivate your team members?
did you create leaders in your team if yes how?
how did you confirm that your modules are resource independent?
Was your project show cased for CMMI or any other project process standardization?
what are the functions of the Quality Assurance Group (QAG)?
Can you explain milestone?
How did you do assessme nt of team members?
What does entry and exit criteria mean in a project?
How much are you as leader and how much are you as PM ?
How can he handle the conflicts between peers and subordinates?
In your team you have highly talented people how did you ha ndle their motivation ?
How can you balance between underperforming and outperforming people ?
You need to make choice between delivery and quality what’s your take ?

Risk Management
Define risk?
What is risk break down structure?
How did you plan your risk?
what is DR, BCP and contingency planning?

Schedule Management
Can you explain WBS?
Can you explain WBS numbering?
How did you do resource allocation?
Can you explain the use of WBS?
Can you explain network diagram?
What are the different types of network diagram?
What is the advantage of using network diagrams?
Can you explain Arrow diagram and Precendence diagram?
What are the different types of Network diagrams?
Can you explain Critical path?
Can you define EST, LST, EFT, LFT?
Can you explain Float and Slack?
Can you explain PERT?
Can you explain GANTT chart?
What is the disadvantage of GANTT chart?
What is Monte-Carlo simulation?

Costing
Can you explain PV, AC and EV?
Can you explain BCWS, ACWS and BCWP?
What are the derived metrics from Earned Value?
Can you explain earned value with a sample?

Estimation, Metrics and Measure
What is meant by measure and metrics?
Which metrics have you used for tracking purpose?
What are the various common ways of estimation?
Can you explain LOC method of estimation?
How do we convert LOC in to effort?
Can you explain COCOMO?
Can you explain Intermediate COCOMO and COCOMO II?
How do you estimate using LOC?
Can you explain in brief Function points?
Can you explain the concept Application boundary?
Can you explain the concept of elementary process?
Can you explain the concept of static and dynamic elementary process?
Can you explain concept of FTR, ILF, EIF, EI, EO , EQ and GSC ?
How can you estimate number of acceptance test cases in a project?
Can you explain the concept of Use Case’s?
Can you explain the concept of Use case points?
What is a use case transaction?
How do we estimate using Use Case Points?
Can you explain on what basis does TPA actually work?
How did you do estimation for black box testing?
How did you estimate white box testing?
Is there a way to estimate acceptance test cases in a system?
Can you explain Number of defects measure?
Can you explain number of production defects measure?
Can you explain defect seeding?
Can you explain DRE?
Can you explain Unit and system test DRE?
How do you measure test effectiveness?
Can you explain Defect age and Defect spoilage?

Software process
What is a Software process?
what are the different cost eleme nt involved in implementing process in an organization?
What is a model?
What is maturity level?
Can you explain the concept of process area in CMMI?
Can you explain the concept of tailoring?

CMMI
What is CMMI?
what’s the difference between implementation and Institutionalization?
what are different models in CMMI?
Can you explain staged and continuous models in CMMI?
Can you explain the different maturity levels in staged representation?
Can you explain capability levels in continuous representation?
which model should we use and under what scenarios?
How many process areas are present in CMMI and in what classification do they fall in?
What the difference between every level in CMMI?
what different sources are needed to verify authenticity for CMMI implementation?
Can you explain SCAMPI process?
How is appraisal done in CMMI?
which appraisal method class is the best?
Can you explain the importance of PII in SCAMPI?
Can you explain implementation of CMMI in one of the Key process areas?
Explanation of all process areas with goals and practices?
Can you explain the process areas?

Six Sigma
What is six sigma?
Can you explain the different methodology for execution and design process in SIXsigma?
What does executive leaders, champions, Master Black belt, green belts and black beltsmean?
What are the different kinds of variations used in six sigma?
Can you explain the concept of standard deviation?
Can you explain the concept of fish bone/ Ishikawa diagram?
What is Pareto principle?
Can you explain QFD?
Can you explain FMEA?
Can you explain X bar charts?
Can you explain Flow charting and brain storming?

Agile Development
What does Agile mean?
Can you explain Agile modelling?
What are core and supplementary principles in Agile modeling?
What is the main principle behind Agile documentation?
What are the different methodologies to implement Agile?
What is XP?
What are User Stories in XP and how different are they from requirement?
Who writes User stories?
When do we say a story is valid?
When are test plans written in XP?
Can you explain the XP development life cycle?
Can you explain how planning game works in Extreme Programming?
How do we estimate in Agile?
On What basis can stories be prioritized?
Can you point out simple differences between Agile and traditional SDLC?
Can you explain the concept of refactoring?
What is a feature in Feature Driven Development?
Can you explain the overall structure of FDD project?
Can you explain the concept of time boxing?
When to choose FDD and when to choose XP?
What is SCRUM?
What does product owner, product back log and sprint mean in SCRUM?
Can you explain how SCRUM flows?
Can you explain different roles in SCRUM?
Can you explain DSDM?
Can you explain different phases in DSDM?
Can you explain in detail project life cycle phase in DSDM?
Can you explain LSD?
Can you explain ASD?

Javascript Interview Questions

Here are some of the javascript questions along with answers that you can refer to before appearing for the interview.

Also, if you are looking for jQuery then please read this.

jQuery Interview Questions

1. What’s relationship between JavaScript and ECMAScript? -
ECMAScript is yet another name for JavaScript (other names include LiveScript). The current JavaScript that you see supported in browsers is ECMAScript revision 3.

2. What are JavaScript types? -
Number, String, Boolean, Function, Object, Null, Undefined.

3. How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript? -
Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);

4. What does isNaN function do? -
Return true if the argument is not a number.

5. What is negative infinity? -
It’s a number in JavaScript, derived by dividing negative number by zero.

6. What boolean operators does JavaScript support? -
&&, and !

7. What does "1"+2+4 evaluate to? -
Since 1 is a string, everything is a string, so the result is 124.

8. How about 2+5+"8"? -
Since 2 and 5 are integers, this is number arithmetic, since 8 is a string, it’s concatenation, so 78 is the result.

9. What looping structures are there in JavaScript? -
for, while, do-while loops, but no foreach.

10. How do you create a new object in JavaScript? -
var obj = new Object(); or var obj = {};

11. How do you assign object properties? -
obj["age"] = 17 or obj.age = 17.

12. What’s a way to append a value to an array? -
arr[arr.length] = value;

13. What is this keyword? -
It refers to the current object.

14. What is the difference between this() and super()?
this() can be used to invoke a constructor of the same class whereas super() can be used to invoke a super class constructor.

15. Where are cookies actually stored on the hard disk?
This depends on the user’s browser and OS.In the case of Netscape with Windows OS,all the cookies are stored in a single file called cookies.txt
c:\Program Files\Netscape\Users\username\cookies.txt
In the case of IE,each cookie is stored in a separate file namely username@website.txt.
c:\Windows\Cookies\username@Website.txt

16. How to set a HTML document's background color?
document.bgcolor property can be set to any appropriate color.

17. How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript?
Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);

18. How to create arrays in JavaScript?
We can declare an array like this
var scripts = new Array();
We can add elements to this array like this
scripts[0] = "PHP";
scripts[1] = "ASP";
scripts[2] = "JavaScript";
scripts[3] = "HTML";
Now our array scrips has 4 elements inside it and we can print or access them by using their index number. Note that index number starts from 0. To get the third element of the array we have to use the index number 2 . Here is the way to get the third element of an array.
document.write(scripts[2]);
We also can create an array like this
var no_array = new Array(21, 22, 23, 24, 25);

19. How do you target a specific frame from a hyperlink?
Include the name of the frame in the target attribute of the hyperlink. >My Page

20. In a pop-up browser window, how do you refer to the main browser window that opened it?
Use window.opener to refer to the main window from pop-ups.

21. What is the data type of variables of in JavaScript?
All variables are of object type in JavaScript.

22. Methods GET and POST in HTML forms - what's the difference?
GET: Parameters are passed in the query string. Maximum amount of data that can be sent via the GET method is limited to about 2kb.
POST: Parameters are passed in the request body. There is no limit to the amount of data that can be transferred using POST. However, there are limits on the maximum amount of data that can be transferred in one name/value pair.

23. Is a JavaScript script faster than an ASP script?
Yes. Since JavaScript is a client-side script it does require the web server's help for its computation, so it is always faster than any server-side script like ASP, PHP, etc..

24. What is the difference between RegisterClientScriptBlock and RegisterStartupScript?
RegisterClientScriptBlock emits the JavaScript just after the opening tag. RegisterStartupScript emits the JavaScript at the bottom of the ASP. NET page just before the closing tag.

25. What is the difference between a web-garden and a web-farm?
Web-garden - An IIS6.0 feature where you can configure an application pool as a web-garden and also specify the number of worker processes for that pool. It can help improve performance in some cases.
Web-farm - a general term referring to a cluster of physically separate machines, each running a web-server for scalability and performance (contrast this with web-garden which refers to multiple processes on one single physical machine).

26. How to get the contents of an input box using JavaScript?
Use the "value" property.
var myValue = window.document.getElementById("MyTextBox").value;

27. How to set the focus in an element using Javascript?


28. What is the difference between an alert box and a confirmation box?
An alert box displays only one button which is the OK button whereas the Confirm box displays two buttons namely OK and cancel.

29. What would the output of 2+5+"8"?
Since 2 and 5 are integers, this is number arithmetic, since 8 is a string, it’s concatenation, so 78 is the result.

30. What is the difference between SessionState and ViewState?
ViewState is specific to a page in a session. Session state refers to user specific data that can be accessed across all pages in the web application.

31. Does JavaScript have the concept level scope?
No. Javascript does not have block level scope, all the variables declared inside a function possess the same level of scope unlike c, c++, java.

ASP.NET Server side Interview Questions


Question:-What do you mean by Share Point Portal ?
Answer: Here I have taken information regarding Share Point Portal Server 2003 provides mainly access to the crucial business information and applications.With the help of Share Point Server we can server information between Public Folders, Data Bases, File Servers and the websites that are based on Windows server 2003. This Share Point Portal is integrated with MSAccess and Windows servers,So we can get a Wide range of document management functionality. We can also create a full featured portal with readymade navigation and structure.

Question:-What is cross page posting in ASP.NET2.0 ?
Answer: When we have to post data from one page to another in application we used server.transfer method but in this the URL remains the same but in cross page posting there is little different there is normal post back is done but in target page we can access values of server control in the source page. This is quite simple we have to only set the PostBackUrl property of Button,LinkButton or imagebutton which specifies the target page.In target page we can access the PreviousPage property. And we have to use the @PreviousPageType directive. We can access control of PreviousPage by using the findcontrol method.When we set the PostBackURL property ASP.NET framework bind the HTML and Javascript function automatically.

Question: What you thing about the WebPortal ?
Answer: Web portal is nothing but a page that allows a user to customize his/her homepage. We can use Widgets to create that portal we have only to drag and drop widgets on the page. The user can set his Widgets on any where on the page where he has to get them. Widgets are nothing but a page area that helps particular function to response. Widgets example are address books, contact lists, RSS feeds, clocks, calendars, play lists, stock tickers, weather reports, traffic reports, dictionaries, games and another such beautiful things that we can not imagine. We can also say Web Parts in Share Point Portal. These are one of Ajax-Powered.

Question: How to start Outlook,NotePad file in AsP.NET with code ?
Answer: Here is the syntax to open outlook or notepad file in ASP.NET VB.NET Process.Start("Notepad.exe") Process.Start("msimn.exe"); C#.NET System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("msimn.exe"); System.Diagnostics.Process.Start("Notepad.exe");

Question: What is the purpose of IIS ?
Answer: We can call IIS(Internet Information Services) a powerful Web server that helps us creating highly reliable, scalable and manageable infrastructure for Web application which runs on Windows Server 2003. IIS helps development center and increase Web site and application availability while lowering system administration costs. It also runs on Windows NT/2000 platforms and also for above versions. With IIS, Microsoft includes a set of programs for building and administering Web sites, a search engine, and support for writing Web-based applications that access database. IIS also called http server since it process the http request and gets http response.

Question:-Can you define what is SharePoint and some overview about this ?
Answer: SharePoint helps workers for creating powerful personalized interfaces only by dragging and drop pre-defined Web Part Components. And these Web Parts components also helps non programmers to get information which care and customize the appearance of Web pages. To under stand it we take an example one Web Part might display a user's information another might create a graph showing current employee status and a third might show a list of Employees Salary. This is also possible that each functions has a link to a video or audio presentation.So now Developers are unable to create these Web Part components and make them available to SharePoint users.

Question:-What is different between WebUserControl and in WebCustomControl ?
Answer: Web user controls :- Web User Control is Easier to create and another thing is that its support is limited for users who use a visual design tool one gud thing is that its contains static layout one more thing a seprate copy is required for each application. Web custom controls:-Web Custom Control is typical to create and gud for dynamic layout and another thing is it have full tool support for user and a single copy of control is required because it is placed in Global Assembly cache.

Question:-What is Sandbox in SQL server and explain permission level in Sql Server ?
Answer: Sandbox is place where we run trused program or script which is created from the third party. There are three type of Sandbox where user code run.Safe Access Sandbox:-Here we can only create stored procedure,triggers,functions,datatypes etc.But we doesnot have acess memory ,disk etc.External Access Sandbox:-We cn access File systems outside the box. We can not play with threading,memory allocation etc.Unsafe Access Sandbox:-Here we can write unreliable and unsafe code.

Question:-How many types of cookies are there in .NET ?
Answer: Two type of cookeies.a) single valued eg request.cookies(”UserName”).value=”dotnetquestion”b)Multivalued cookies. These are used in the way collections are used examplerequest.cookies(”CookiName”)(”UserName”)=”dotnetquestionMahesh”request.cookies(”CookiName”)(”UserID”)=”interview″

Question: When we get Error 'HTTP 502 Proxy Error' ?
Answer: We get this error when we execute ASP.NET Web pages in Visual Web Developer Web server, because the URL randomly select port number and proxy servers did not recognize the URL and return this error. To resolve this problem we have to change settings in Internet Explorer to bypass the proxy server for local addresses, so that the request is not sent to the proxy.

Question:-What do you mean by three-tier architecture?
Answer: The three-tier architecture was comes into existence to improve management of code and contents and to improve the performance of the web based applications.There are mainly three layers in three-tier architecture.the are define as follows (1)Presentation (2)Business Logic (3)Database (1)First layer Presentation contains mainly the interface code, and this is shown to user. This code could contain any technology that can be used on the client side like HTML, JavaScript or VBScript etc.(2)Second layer is Business Logic which contains all the code of the server-side .This layer have code to interact with database database and to query, manipulate, pass data to user interface and handle any input from the UI as well. (3)Third layer Data represents the data store like MS Access, SQL Server, an XML file, an Excel file or even a text file containing data also some addtional database are also added to that layers.Question: What is Finalizer in .NET define Dispose and Finalize ?Answer: We can say that Finalizer are the methods that's helps in cleanp the code that is executed before object is garbage collected .The process is called finalization . There are two methods of finalizer Dispose and Finalize .There is little diffrenet between two of this method .When we call Dispose method is realse all the resources hold by an object as well as all the resorces hold by the parent object.When we call Dispose method it clean managed as well as unmanaged resources.Finalize methd also cleans resources but finalize call dispose clears only the unmanged resources because in finalization the garbase collecter clears all the object hold by managed code so finalization fails to prevent thos one of methd is used that is: GC.SuppressFinalize.

Question: Define SMTPclient class in DotNet framework class libarary ?
Answer: Each classes in dotnet framework inclue some properties,method and events.These properties ,methods and events are member of a class.SMTPclient class mainly concern with sending mail.This class contain the folling member.Properties:-Host:-The name or IP address of email server.Port:-Port that is use when sending mail.Methods:-Send:-Enables us to send email synchronously.SendAsynchronous:-Enables us to send an email asynchronously.Event:-SendCompleted:-This event raised when an asynchronous send opertion completes.

Question: What is late binding ?

Answer: When code interacts with an object dynamically at runtime .because our code literally doesnot care what type of object it is interacting and with the methods thats are supported by object and with the methods thats are supported by object .The type of object is not known by the IDE or compiler ,no Intellisense nor compile-time syntax checking is possible but we get unprecedented flexibilty in exchange.if we enable strict type checking by using option strict on at the top of our code modules ,then IDE and compiler will enforce early binding behaviour .By default Late binding is done.

Question:-Does .NET CLR and SQL SERVER run in different process ?
Answer: Dot Net CLR and all .net realtes application and Sql Server run in same process or we can say that that on the same address because there is no issue of speed because if these two process are run in different process then there may be a speed issue created one process goes fast and other slow may create the problem.

Question:-What is Com Marshler and its importance in .NET ?
Answer: Com Marshler is one of useful component of CLR. Its Task is to marshal data between Managed and Unmanaged environment .It helps in representation of data accross diffrenet execution enviroment.It performs the conversion of data format between manage and unmanaged code.By the helps of Com Marshlar CLR allows manage code to interoperate with unmanaged code.

Question: What is CSU and its description ?
Answer: CSU stands for comma separate values also called comma delimited.It is plain text file which stores spreadsheets or basic datatype in very simple format.One record in each line and each field separted with comma's it is often used to transfer large ammount spreadsheet data or database information between program.

Question: The IHttpHandler and IHttpHandlerFactory interfaces ?
Answer: The IHttpHandler interface is implemented by all the handlers. The interface consists of one property called IsReusable. The IsReusable property gets a value indicating whether another request can use the IHttpHandler instance. The method ProcessRequest() allows you to process the current request. This is the core place where all your code goes. This method receives a parameter of type HttpContext using which you can access the intrinsic objects such as Request and Response. The IHttpHandlerFactory interface consists of two methods - GetHandler and ReleaseHandler. The GetHandler() method instantiates the required HTTP handler based on some condition and returns it back to ASP.NET. The ReleaseHandler() method allows the factory to reuse an existing handler.

Question: what is Viewstate?

Answer:View state is used by the ASP.NET page framework to automatically save the values of the page and of each control just prior to rendering to the page. When the page is posted, one of the first tasks performed by page processing is to restore view state. State management is the process by which you maintain state and page information over multiple requests for the same or different pages. Client-side options are:
* The ViewState property
* Query strings
* Hidden fields
* Cookies
Server-side options are:
* Application state
* Session state
* DataBase
Use the View State property to save data in a hidden field on a page. Because ViewState stores data on the page, it is limited to items that can be serialized. If you want to store more complex items in View State, you must convert the items to and from a string.ASP.NET provides the following ways to retain variables between requests:Context.Handler object Use this object to retrieve public members of one Web form’s class from a subsequently displayed Web form. Query strings Use these strings to pass information between requests and responses as part of the Web address. Query strings are visible to the user, so they should not contain secure information such as passwords. Cookies Use cookies to store small amounts of information on a client. Clients might refuse cookies, so your code has to anticipate that possibility. View state ASP.NET stores items added to a page’s ViewState property as hidden fields on the page.Session state Use Session state variables to store items that you want keep local to the current session (single user).Application state Use Application state variables to store items that you want be available to all users of the application.

Question: DOTNET PAGE LIFECYCLE ?
Answer: While excuting the page, it will go under the fallowing steps(or fires the events) which collectivly known as Page Life cycle.Page_Init -- Page InitializationLoadViewState -- View State LoadingLoadPostData -- Postback data processingPage_Load -- Page LoadingRaisePostDataChangedEvent -- PostBack Change NotificationRaisePostBackEvent -- PostBack Event HandlingPage_PreRender -- Page Pre Rendering PhaseSaveViewState -- View State SavingPage_Render -- Page Rendering Page_UnLoad -- Page Unloading

Question: What is Satellite Assemblies ?
Answer: Satellite assemblies are often used to deploy language-specific resources for an application. These language-specific assemblies work in side-by-side execution because the application has a separate product ID for each language and installs satellite assemblies in a language-specific subdirectory for each language. When uninstalling, the application removes only the satellite assemblies associated with a given language and .NET Framework version. No core .NET Framework files are removed unless the last language for that .NET Framework version is being removed. For example, English and Japanese editions of the .NET Framework version 1.1 share the same core files. The Japanese .NET Framework version 1.1 adds satellite assemblies with localized resources in a \ja subdirectory. An application that supports the .NET Framework version 1.1, regardless of its language, always uses the same core runtime files.

Question: What is CAS ?
Answer:CAS: CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk. How does CAS work? The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts - code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set. For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the 'Zone - Internet' code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the 'Internet' named permission set. (Naturally the 'Internet' named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)

Question: Automatic Memory Management ?
Answer: Automatic Memory Management: From a programmer's perspective, this is probably the single biggest benefit of the .NET Framework. No, I'm not kidding. Every project I've worked on in my long career of DOS and Windows development has suffered at some point from memory management issues. Proper memory management is hard. Even very good programmers have difficulty with it. It's entirely too easy for a small mistake to cause a program to chew up memory and crash, sometimes bringing the operating system to a screeching halt in the process.Programmers understand that they're responsible for releasing any memory that they allocate, but they're not very good at actually doing it. In addition, functions that allocate memory as a side effect abound in the Windows API and in the C runtime library. It's nearly impossible for a programmer to know all of the rules. Even when the programmer follows the rules, a small memory leak in a support library can cause big problems if called enough.The .NET Framework solves the memory management problems by implementing a garbage collector that can keep track of allocated memory references and release the memory when it is no longer referenced. A large part of what makes this possible is the blazing speed of today's processors. When you're running a 2 GHz machine, it's easy to spare a few cycles for memory management. Not that the garbage collector takes a huge number of cycles--it's incredibly efficient.The garbage collector isn't perfect and it doesn't solve the problem of mis-managing other scarce resources (file handles, for example), but it relieves programmers from having to worry about a huge source of bugs that trips almost everybody up in other programming environments.On balance, automatic memory management is a huge win in almost every situation.

Question: What Language familar to CLR?
Answer: Any language that can be compiled into Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) is considered a .NET-compliant language. Following are a few of the popular .NET-compliant languages supported by CLR:
APL
COBOL
Component Pascal
Eiffel
Fortran
Haskell
JScript
Mercury
Oberon
Pascal
Perl
Python
Smalltalk
Visual Basic
Visual C#
Visual C++

Advanced C# Questions

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?
StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created.

Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?
No.

What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow.

How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key?
HashTable.

What’s class SortedList underneath?
A sorted HashTable.

Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred?
Yes.

What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

Can multiple catch blocks be executed?
No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block.

Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions?
Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

What’s a delegate?
A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers.

What’s a multicast delegate?
It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods.

How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET?
Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

What are the ways to deploy an assembly?
An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

What’s a satellite assembly?
When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?
System.Globalization, System.Resources.

What’s the difference between and XML documentation tag?
Single line code example and multiple-line code example.

Is XML case-sensitive?
Yes, so and are different elements.

What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?
CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

What does the This window show in the debugger?
It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown.

What does assert() do?
In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?
Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?
The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.

Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?
To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application?
Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?
Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?
Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?
SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections?
It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is executed.

What is the wildcard character in SQL?
Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

Why would you use untrusted verificaion?
Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications.

What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database?
Microsoft.Access.

What does Dispose method do with the connection object?
Deletes it from the memory.

What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling?
Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings.

C# Interview Questions - 1

Does C# support multiple-inheritance? No.
Who is a protected class-level variable available to? It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class).

Are private class-level variables inherited?
Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.

Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”.
It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class.

What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from?
System.Object.

What does the term immutable mean?
The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory.

What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes?
System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed.

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String?
StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created.

Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?
No.

What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.

How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?
HashTable.

What class is underneath the SortedList class?
A sorted HashTable.

Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?
­Yes.

What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).

Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.
Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).

Class Questions
What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#?

Place a colon and then the name of the base class.Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass

Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class?
Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.

Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden?
Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed.

What’s an abstract class?
A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation.

When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract?
1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden.
2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract.

What is an interface class?
Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes.

Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface?
They all must be public, and are therefore public by default.

Can you inherit multiple interfaces?
Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces.

What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names?
It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate

What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?
In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.

What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?
Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval. Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.

Method and Property Questions
What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class?

Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as.


What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property?
The method or property can be overridden.

How is method overriding different from method overloading?
When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class.

Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static?
No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override)

What are the different ways a method can be overloaded?
Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters.

If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?
Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

Events and Delegates
What’s a delegate?

A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method.

What’s a multicast delegate?
A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.

XML Documentation Questions
Is XML case-sensitive?

Yes.

What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments?
Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments.

How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler?
Compile it with the /doc switch.

Debugging and Testing Questions
What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?

1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.
2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.

What does assert() method do?
In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?
Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?
The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.

Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?
To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application?
Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?
1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output).
2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling).
3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?
Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

ADO.NET and Database Questions
What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections?

It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed.

What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?
SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.

What is the wildcard character in SQL?
Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.
A transaction must be
:1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions.
2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t.
3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction).
4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after.

What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support?
Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password).

Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted?
Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string?
The database name to connect to.

What does the Dispose method do with the connection object?
Deletes it from the memory.To Do: answer better. The current answer is not entirely correct.

What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling?
Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.

Assembly Questions
How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET?

Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

What are the ways to deploy an assembly?
An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

What is a satellite assembly?
When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?
System.Globalization and System.Resources.

What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?
an Assembly.

When should you call the garbage collector in .NET?
As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice.

How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type?
Use Boxing.

What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type?
Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.

ASP.NET Interview Questions

In ASP.Net 2.0 Login controls if you want to have your own database for login info how do you do that?
Create Table User with fields (UserID Primary Key, UserName,Password),Roles(RoleID Primary Key,RoleName) and UserRoles(id Primary Key, UserID Foreigh Key,RoleID Foreign Key).Populate the above tables with data. You can authenticate users based on roles from now by simply configuring web.config file.

What are the main differences between Asp.net 1.1 and Asp.net 2.0
ASP.NET 2.0 introduces a lot of new features. Some of this features aim to simplify the problems faced using the earlier versions and some features are introduced to provide lot of new facilities. The most important features that are incorporated in ASP.NET 2.0 are:

Master Page:
Master pages are introduced to remove one of the most important deficiencies of earlier version of ASP.NET. One thing that has become apparent in the earlier version of ASP.NET is the lack of architecture for applying a consistent look and feel. In earlier version of ASP.NET whenever a developer wants to replicate a common functionality of a web page in other pages, the most possible options he uses is creating a user control and then replicate the functionality in other pages. ASP.NET 2.0 aims to solve this problem by introducing the concept of Master pages. First the developer needs to define a master page containing the content that he wants to appear on other pages and then use the ContentPlaceHolder controls to define the locations where the sub pages can plug in the content of their own.

PreCompilation:
By default, ASP.NET web pages and code files are compiled dynamically when a first request is made to the page. After the initial compilation, the compiled pages is cached; the cache is used to satisfy the subsequent requests for the same page. Even though this approach is flexible, when the page is requested for the first time, it requires a bit of extra time to compile the code. You can avoid this overhead by leveraging a new feature known as precompilation; by using this feature, you can compile an ASP.NET web site before making the web site available to the users.

Sharing code in the application:
In earlier version of ASP.NET, if you were to reference a reusable component from your dot net application, you had to compile the assembly and place it in the bin folder (or place it in the GAC) of the web application. But now with ASP.NET 2.0, creating a reusable component is very simple and straightforward. All you need to do is to create a component in a pre-defined subdirectory called code. Any component placed in this directory will be automatically compiled at runtime into a single assembly. This assembly is automatically referenced and will be available to all the page in the site.

Themes and Skins:
ASP.NET 2.0 introduces the concepts of Themes and Skins by means of which the look and feel of the web pages can be enhanced to a great extent to make them visually catchy and attractive. A skin is a set of visual attributes applied to a control type. A theme is a collection of skins. There are a lot of predefined themes in ASP.NET 2.0. One can use it by using the following line of code:< @ Page Theme=”SmokeAndGlass” %> The page directive’s Them attribute declaratively applies a theme to a page. Themes can also be applied programmatically using the page class’s Theme property

what are the new features in ASP.NET 2.0?
ASP.NET is a programming framework built on the common language runtime that can be used on a server to build powerful Web applications. The first version of ASP.NET offered several important advantages over previous Web development models. ASP.NET 2.0 improves upon that foundation by adding support for several new and exciting features in the areas of developer productivity, administration and management, extensibility, and performance

New Server Controls:
ASP.NET 2.0 introduces many new server controls that enable powerful declarative support for data access, login security, wizard navigation, menus, treeviews, portals, and more. Many of these controls take advantage of core application services in ASP.NET for scenarios like data access, membership and roles, and personalization.

Master Pages:
This feature provides the ability to define common structure and interface elements for your site, such as a page header, footer, or navigation bar, in a common location called a "master page", to be shared by many pages in your site. In one simple place you can control the look, feel, and much of functionality for an entire Web site. This improves the maintainability of your site and avoids unnecessary duplication of code for shared site structure or behavior.

Themes and Skins.
The themes and skins features in ASP.NET 2.0 allow for easy customization of your site's look-and-feel. You can define style information in a common location called a "theme", and apply that style information globally to pages or controls in your site. Like Master Pages, this improves the maintainability of your site and avoid unnecessary duplication of code for shared styles.

Personalization
Using the new personalization services in ASP.NET 2.0 you can easily create customized experiences within Web applications. The Profile object enables developers to easily build strongly-typed, sticky data stores for user accounts and build highly customized, relationship based experiences. At the same time, a developer can leverage Web Parts and the personalization service to enable Web site visitors to completely control the layout and behavior of the site, with the knowledge that the site is completely customized for them. Personalizaton scenarios are now easier to build than ever before and require significantly less code and effort to implement.

Localization.
Enabling globalization and localization in Web sites today is difficult, requiring large amounts of custom code and resources. ASP.NET 2.0 and Visual Studio 2005 provide tools and infrastructure to easily build Localizable sites including the ability to auto-detect incoming locale's and display the appropriate locale based UI. Visual Studio 2005 includes built-in tools to dynamically generate resource files and localization references. Together, building localized applications becomes a simple and integrated part of the development experience.

Administration and Management
New tools like Configuration API, ASP.NET MMC Admin Tool, Pre-compilation Tool, Health Monitoring and Tracing have been introduced.

Do I need IIS to run Web applications?
If you are using Visual Studio, you can use the ASP.NET Development Server built into Visual Studio to test your pages. The server functions as a local Web server, running ASP.NET Web pages in a manner virtually identical to how they run in IIS. To deploy a Web application, you need to copy it to a computer running IIS version 5 or 6.

Can I upgrade my existing ASP.NET 1.x website to ASP.NET 2.0?
Yes. You can either login to the Customer Control panel and select ASP.NET 2.0 for your website.
Can I run my ASP.NET 2.0 applications on my local machine to test my pages?
If you are using Visual Studio, you can use the ASP.NET Development Server built into Visual Studio to test your pages. The server functions as a local Web server, running ASP.NET Web pages in a manner virtually identical to how they run on a Web server. Once testing is completed you can upload your pages to our servers.

Can I hide the source code for my page?
Server-side code is processed on the server and is not sent to the browser, so users cannot see it. However, client script is not protected; any client script that you add to your page or that is injected into the page by server processing is visible to users. If you are concerned about protecting your source code on the server, you can precompile your site and deploy the compiled version.

Are old projects created in Visual Studio .NET 2002 or 2003 supported in Visual Studio 2005?
Old projects will continue to run without change. In Visual Studio 2005, if you open a project created in Visual Studio .NET 2002 or 2003, the project is converted to the new project layout used in Visual Studio 2005. As part of the conversion, pages that use the old code-behind model are converted to use the new code-behind model. You cannot create pages using the old code-behind model in Visual Studio 2005.

HTML Interview Questions

what is the Html?
HyperText is the method by which you move around on the web — by clicking on special text called hyperlinks which bring you to the next page. The fact that it is hyper just means it is not linear — i.e. you can go to any place on the Internet whenever you want by clicking on links — there is no set order to do things in. Markup is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it as a certain type of text (italicised text, for example). HTML is a Language, as it has code-words and syntax like any other language.

What are the attributes that make up a DHTML?
DHTML is called as Dynamic HTML. This is used to increase the interactive ability and the visual effect of the web pages which is loaded in the browser. The main technologies that are used in DHTML are namely:
HTML
JavaScript
CSS which is also called as Cascading Style Sheet
DOM also called as Document Object Model

What is meant by iframe ?
iframe is used for creating an inline or floating frame. As most of know frames are mainly used to structure the page or for placing a menu bar on the side and so on. But iframe is used in a different context. That is in other words iframe is used to embed or insert content on a page of padding. This is done for several reasons. Say the content may be large enough that the user may wish to place it separately and scroll through it

How to place a background for a single table cell?
You can put a background for a single table cell in two ways namely: Either by using HTML Using CSS

What are differences between DIV and SPAN?
DIV is used to select a block of text so that one can apply styles to it.SPAN is used to select inline text and let users to apply styles to it. The main difference between DIV and SPAN is SPAN does not do formatting by itself. Also the DIV tag is used as a paragraph break as it creates a logical division of the document in which it is applied. This is in contrast to the SPAN as SPAN simply dos the functionality of applying the style and alignment whatever was specified in it. DIV has ALIGN attribute in it which is not present in case of SPAN.


Thus DIV is used in cases where one wants to apply styles to a block of text. But there may be situations in which there might not be clear well structured block of text to work with. In those cases one can opt to apply SPAN which is used to apply styles inline. That is in other words DIV is generally used for block of text and SPAN is generally used for words or sentences.

What are the differences between cell spacing and cell padding?
Cell padding is used for formatting purpose which is used to specify the space needed between the edges of the cells and also in the cell contents.Cell spacing is one also used f formatting but there is a major difference between cell padding and cell spacing. It is as follows: Cell padding is used to set extra space which is used to separate cell walls from their contents. But in contrast cell spacing is used to set space between cells.

How do I specify page breaks in HTML?
Here is no way in standard HTML to specify where page breaks will occur when printing a page. HTML was designed to be a device-independent structural definition language, and page breaks depend on things like the fonts and paper size that the person viewing the page is using.

How do I add scrolling text to my page?
Add a Tag of marquee

How do I close a browser window with HTML code?
Use the below code example. < type="button" value="Close this window" onclick="self.close()">

Is it possible to make the HTML source not viewable?
There is no real method or script for making standard HTML source code not viewable.There are various script that Disable Right click feature.

How do I do multiple colors of text?
To do the multicolor text adjust the color of your font tag as:< color="blue">blue

How do I make a picture a link?
Use the A HREF link tag around the IMG image tag as:< href="http://programming-questions.blogspot.com">< src="agile-programming.blogspot.gif">